Months of 29 & 30
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
The months of 29 and 30 were fixed on the day of creation says the Qur'an. The dates which denote the days of the week are inviolable just as the days.
Today the science has proved that the statement of the Qur'an is correct. The dates are based on the stages and phases of the moon which moves with precision. (not on the disability of hilaal, which is quite uncertain)
The phases for any required month can be produced exactly by science. A month of 30 days has 29 phases and 29 has 28 phases visible to the naked eye. Just by counting everyday the months can be easily identified by any illiterate person.
Today we have them in our mobile phones.
At the time when Qur'an was revealed the people did not know the calculation, "He appointed stages for the moon for you to know moon ages and the calculations" said the Qur'an and Rasoolullah said, we are illiterate, we do not write and we do not record. See the moon and fast. So, they saw the moon and found out the true dates just as they saw the sun and found out their times.
Jews and Arabs at that time were using the artificial lunar calendar which was based on beginning the month after the hilaal was visible. Their artificial dates were always one or two days behind the true lunar date, This was not a matter of concern for them.
Rasoolullah was born on Monday the full moon of Rabiul Awwal. But the records showing 12th of Rabiul Awwal proves they followed the artificial lunar calendar.
Fasting of Ramadan was prescribed in second Sha'ban they encountered in Medina.
Ramadan is the ninth month and the fasting cannot be in Sha'ban or Shawwal in the right religion. Rasoolullah ordered them to see the moon and find out.
Their method of seeing the hilaal and beginning the month on the next day would not give the true lunar dates. Some of the Bedouins knew how to find out the true dates by observation.
When Islam spread far and wide people interpreted Qur'an and Hadith differently and the old method of Arabs got revived again and they began to see the hilaal and begin the month after seeing it.
Old dates in places other than Haramaen are one or two days behind the true lunar date. Today even the Arabs have forgotten the right method under the force of civilization.
We must revive the old knowledge till people realize that the calculated date and observed date are same.
Hilaal becomes visible to the naked eye only on the first day of the month. It is never seen on the last day of the month.
So, beginning fasting or celebrating Eidul Fitr after seeing the crescent is definitely not the Sunnah of Rasoolullah and the Sahaba.
Hilaal seen belongs to the day it is seen. "Fahuwa lilailathin ra'aithumoohu" makes it clear.
Our method of seeing the crescent and beginning the fasting on the following day contradicts Qur'an and Sunnah.
We must return to Qur'an and Sunnah.
Rasoolullah was very particular to correct the dates of Sha'ban, We did not do it. We had different dates in Sha'ban and we believed that the dates being different is Islamic.
Date stands for day and they cannot be separated as seen from the following equation.
Saturday, Sunday and Monday are three different days and the figure 1 cannot represent 3 different days. It is absurd.
By observing the stages and phases of the moon we can identify the dates easily as seen in the diagram.
The months contain the week days. Sun and moon are together in one manaazil once in every month. On the day of conjunction rising or setting of the moon cannot be viewed from earth due to proximity. It is the last day of the month, which may be either 29th or 30th of the month.
Conjunction day of Rajab 1435H was Wednesday. Sha'ban began on Thursday. Conjunction or last day of Sha'ban was Friday and Ramadan began on Saturday. Conjunction/last day of Ramadan is Saturday and Shawwal begins on Sunday. All places having Sunday will be in First of Shawwal.
When a month begins on Thursday, 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th will be the same day Thursday. It is easy to remember without writing.
The moon's travel per day is about 12°. In a week the moon is on the meridian at sun set of 7th day. The moon will be half or a little less. 84-90 degrees. In a fortnight both are in opposition and it is full moon. Now waxing is over and waning begins. In a week it is on the meridian at sun rise and in another week they are again in conjunction and the month is over.
Just as in our perambulation of the Kaba we come near and go far the moon also comes near and goes away from earth making differences in the orbit. This makes the months of 30 and 29 days. Observation for a few months will make one perfect in predicting the dates.